Which Native American Tribes Once Lived In Southernmost Illinois?

There were a number of Native American tribes once thriving in southernmost Illinois before European settlers started to drive them away from their lands. They built surprisingly complex societies, most of which were much bigger and more expansive than we think. North America was home to a vast network of such societies. Sometimes they would war with one another. Sometimes they would set up trade routes with one another. But who were they?

The Chippewa tribe made our history books because they were part of treaties that would give up their claim to the land in southern Illinois in 1795, 1816, 1829, and 1833. They were also found on the outskirts of Lake Huron and Lake Superior, and had settlements in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. They were feared as one of the most war-ready and fearsome tribes.

American settlers often knew the Meskwaki tribe as another name: the Fox. They were a part of the Sauk culture in the same region. They too lived in the area around the Great Lakes, especially in Illinois. In the early eighteenth century they were on the defensive because of wars with the French. When the United States was formed, they were once again put on the defensive by our encroaching settlements.

Europeans probably wouldn’t have happened upon the Kickapoo tribe until sometime near the end of the seventeenth century because of their migrations. First contact probably occurred in the midst of the La Salle Expeditions when the French started to establish fur trading outposts near their lands. After the U.S. was formed, the tribe sold much of their land and migrated yet again.

The Illinois tribe was more of an umbrella with other smaller tribes underneath, most of which would comprise the Illinois Confederation. It was eventually destroyed due to a combination of factors. The two most substantial were infectious disease brought by caucasian settlers and war made on them by other tribes. The Illinois survived until then by settling almost-permanent villages. When the weather turned cold, they would transition to hunting camps.

There were likely tens of thousands of Wyandot tribespeople when contact with caucasian settlers was made in the early seventeenth century. First contact actually occurred about a century earlier when they met Samuel de Champlain during his explorative travels. They too suffered greatly due to European diseases.

How Many Casinos Operate In Southernmost Illinois?

There’s more pressure than ever on local authorities and legislative bodies to expand casino gambling in Illinois. It’s a controversial issue because opponents of the practice believe it results in government corruption, addictive behavioral issues, higher crime, and a “regressive tax” on those in poverty. It’s also a restricted industry across the United States, but local economies often benefit from tax revenue generated by gambling, and so governments still continue to allow certain types of gambling.

In Illinois, all casino gambling is conducted aboard riverboats (sort of), seven of which are docked boats that don’t actually go out onto the river. Three of the other casinos are technically operating on land, but they get away with qualifying as riverboat casinos because their foundations were built in pits filled with only a couple inches of water. Loopholes at their finest.

Those ten casinos are the only ones in all of Illinois, and the limit stays capped at ten. Only three of these casinos operate in southernmost Illinois.

They’re a little bit different from the casinos to which you may be accustomed. You can’t smoke indoors, and they don’t stay open around the clock. On top of that–and maybe worst of all!–bartenders won’t give you free drinks just for playing a game of blackjack or yanking the handle on a slot machine a few times. Free drinks at casinos are illegal. You must be 21 in order to drink, as usual.

Plus, there are records that lend transparency to casino gambling in Illinois. All records for payback rates of electronic game machines are reported to the public, and you can easily find statistics online.

Most casinos will offer the fundamentals: poker, Mississippi stud, four card poker, Ultimate Texas hold ‘em, let it ride, three card poker, roulette, craps, and blackjack. There’s more, depending on the casino.

Riverboat gambling was first implemented in 1990 after the Riverboat Gambling Act was put into law. It was the second state to implement such a law. A newer “Video Gaming Act” was put into law in July 2009, and authorizes retail establishments to place a maximum of five video gaming terminals. These terminals are regularly monitored by the Central Communications System.

The casinos are regulated through a five-member Illinois Gaming Board to maintain the integrity of the industry.

Who Were The Earliest Inhabitants of Southern Illinois?

A couple of years ago, an old village dating back to the 1100s was discovered in Central Illinois by college students in the middle of a corn field, causing a wave of historical interest in the region. They found arrowheads, fragments of pottery, and tools. The college students went back home to clean the newly discovered artifacts in order to learn as much as they could, but it begs the question: when did Native Americans first inhabit the Southern Illinois region? Surely it was earlier than the 1100s.

In fact, scientists believe the earliest settlers drifted into Southern Illinois as early as 12,000 BC. Although they may have utilized primitive agriculture to survive, they mostly followed a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. By 1000 AD, they had settled the region permanently. Agriculture had developed extensively over the millennia, and the more sustainable form of living gave them the option to form a much bigger society. So that’s what they did.

Although we mostly think of Native American societies as small, roving bands of tribes, the cities that sprang up in Southern Illinois were most likely populated by thousands upon thousands of people. The leaders of this evolving society inhabited the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, and would use thousands of workers to build huge conical mounds that would be used in conjunction with spiritual ceremony.

Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site provides a glimpse at this amazing bit of history, located in Collinsville. This site was a center for commerce in the region, and it was home to the largest prehistoric earthworks anywhere in the Americas. The society that built them disappeared before the first European settlers had a chance to interfere.

When the culture responsible for these impressive feats finally disintegrated, the remaining tribes populated the region we all know and love so well. This event took place by 1500 AD. These aren’t the same Native Americans who thrived there for so long. The new tribes spoke Algonquian, and likely moved there from the east. We learn about them through the artifacts they left behind: burial sites, campfires, weapons, pottery, etc.

Some tribes even built impressive stone forts. One of the remaining forts can be visited in Giant City State Park.

European settlers didn’t reach Illinois until around 1673, when the French arrived from Quebec. These first explorers were the ones who named the region Illinois!

Dirty Jokes and Sexual Harassment

According to federal regulations and NJ Employment Attorneys, an employer cannot discriminate in the workplace on the ground of religion, race, national origin, and/or sex. With this in mind, it’s important to understand some of the responsibilities of an employer when it comes to sexual harassment and dirty jokes or vulgar language.

Does a dirty joke fit the bill for a sexual harassment charge?

In general, sexual harassment in the workplace has to be enough to create a hostile work environment due to the individual’s conduct (i.e. dirty joke). It has to be directed towards the claimant for it to have any validity in the court of law. Of course, there’s a lot more to the equation based on the underlying civility code, where not all sexual and/or profane language can be used to claim harassment.

Recent Cases

The best way to determine what’s allowed and what’s not is to look at recent cases on similar issues.

A case in Alabama look at vulgar language and whether it could be seen as sexual harassment. In this case, the claimant stated she was one of two women working in the shipping facility at the time and some of her male co-workers were creating a hostile work environment with their vulgar language. She stated this was an ongoing issue and was something she had complained about to her manager. In her eyes, most of the language was generalized vulgarity but there were moments where it had been gender-specific. However, at no stage was it directed towards her.

It’s important to look at the last point as it was one of the main reasons for it not being deemed as sexual harassment. The court stated if the harassment claim was legitimate, it would have been directed towards her. Since it was not, the vulgar language was more generalized and not used to harass.

Key Factors

It’s best to look into some of the key factors that pertain to any case of this nature especially with dirty jokes.

The court is going to take a look at a few things such as:

* Types of Profanity (i.e. Dirty Jokes)
* The Level of Hostility in the Workplace
* Intent to Discriminate Against Plaintiff(s)

Even in cases where all three boxes are ticked, it can still lead to inefficient results where the claimant doesn’t win.

Additional factors have also come into action in previous cases when it comes to vulgar language or dirty jokes.

These include:

* Use of Gender-Specific Jokes/Language
* Context of Vulgar Conduct
* Employer’s Response to Vulgar Conduct

All of these variables have a role to play in the grand scheme of things before the employer/employee can be convicted.

As in most situations when it pertains to the law, it is always going to come down to the case’s merits and how valid the claims are. It’s best to avoid dirty jokes in such settings for the betterment of all parties.

Finding The Best Hiking Trails In Southern Illinois

Are you hoping to hike in the near future? If you’re going to be taking a hiking trip, you’re going to want to find some of the best hiking trails in your area. Here’s how you can find the top hiking trails in Southern Illinois.

Find Trails That Come Highly Recommended

See what other people have to say about local trails. Read reviews and see which trails have received a lot of praise. Talk to other hikers you know and see which trails they recommend. Try to find trails that a lot of people love.

If people enjoy a trail, it’s probably for a good reason. You should definitely look at comments from others if you’re trying to find the right trails to visit. See which trails other people are thrilled with. You don’t necessarily have to visit the busiest and most popular trails in Illinois, but you should find trails that have plenty of positive feedback.

Seek Out Trails That Are A Good Fit For Someone Like You

You should try to find trails that match your needs. If you’re fairly new to hiking, you won’t want to visit the most popular trails in Illinois. If you’re an experienced hiker, you probably won’t be satisfied with trails that cater to novices.

Whether you’re looking for a longer trail or a shorter trail, you need to make sure that the trails you visit are a match for your needs. Try to find trails that are in line with what you’re looking for. Spend some time researching trails so that you can find the best trails to visit.

Find The Right Trails For The Season

Illinois experiences all four seasons. Because of this, the best trails to visit will vary based on the time of year. The best trails to visit in the spring may not be the best trails to visit in the fall.

When you’re trying to find the ideal trails, you should consider the season. Look for photos and reviews from people that have visited the trail you’re considering during this season. You should aim to visit the right trails at the right time of year.

There are all kinds of hiking trails in this part of Illinois. If you’re trying to find the best hiking trails in Southern Illinois, you should follow the advice above. These pointers will make it easier for you to find trails that appeal to you. If you are an avid hiker, you might want to subscribe to hiking blogs. They have great information about deals on equipment for consumers.

How to Find Best Casinos In Southern Illinois

A casino can be a fantastic place for a day trip or a weekend getaway. It is certainly better than a nursing home abuse lawyer NYC. While people frequently associate casinos with Las Vegas, there are casinos located all over the country! Here’s how you can find the best casinos in southern Illinois.

Do Some Research

Before you make any plans, you should try to learn more about local casinos. Take a closer look at your options and try to learn as much as you can about the casinos you have to choose from.

It’s a lot easier to make a decision when you have the right information. Start looking into casinos and see how much you can learn about them. There are plenty of ways to gather information. Read reviews, browse websites, and see what you are able to learn.

Ask Your Friends And Family For Advice

There’s a good chance that some of the people you know have visited casinos before. Talk to your friends and family members and let them know you’re hoping to visit a casino in the near future. See where they think you should go.

Getting advice from people you’re close to can be very helpful, especially in a situation like this. You should definitely take the time to ask people about casinos so that you can see what they recommend.

Even if you don’t know anyone that’s visited a casino in Illinois, you can still ask them for advice. Ask them what they wish they knew before they went out to a casino for the first time.

Think About What You’re Looking For

Not everyone is going to have the same definition of what the “best” casino in an area is. Some people prioritize gambling above all else. Other people like to visit casinos that have a lot of ambiances or places that serve great food. You should think about what you want from your casino trip.

Don’t just try to identify the top casinos in this part of Illinois. Take the time to find local casinos that are a great fit for someone like you. You should be able to find some spectacular options.

Finding the best casinos in Southern Illinois shouldn’t be too difficult for you. As long as you’re willing to try out the tips above, you should be able to find plenty of fantastic casinos in this area. Seek out the nicest casinos and make a point of spending some time there!

Remeber to gamble responsibly. If you or somebody you know is suffering from a gambling addiction, you should seek help. If you have incurred a large debt due to gambling that you are unable to pay because of other outstanding debts like your home mortgage, you may need to contact an experienced lawyer.

Famous People From Illinois That Aren’t From Chicago

There is a flaw in a lot of people’s logic. People assume that if you are a celebrity and that you are from Illinois that you must be from Chicago. And while there are a lot of celebrities that do hail from the windy city there are several celebrities that are from the great rural state of Illinois that we all know and love. We will start with the furthest from Chicago and make our way to it.

Ludacris – Champaign IL

Christopher Brian Bridges aka Ludacris at one time might have needed a defense lawyer but is known as an American rapper and an award-winning actor. Ludacris has had several hits over the past decade. Appearing as a featured artist with Usher on the song Yeah! (see video below) propelled him into superstardom. Other number one hits as a solo and featured artist include Stand Up, Money Maker, Glamorous, and Break Your Heart. He won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance By A Cast In A Motion Picture for the 2005 film Crash.

Betty White – Oak Park, IL

It’s hard to believe that Betty White began her acting career as a radio actress almost 100 years ago back in 1930. She transitioned from the radio to television with ease having iconic parts on The Mary Tyler Moore Show and The Golden Girls. She has won 5 Primetime Emmys for her work in Television.  Two for her work on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, one for The Golden Girls, The John Larroquette Show, and Saturday Night Live.

Melissa McCarthy – Plainfield, IL

An American actress, comedian, writer, fashion designer, and producer. A two-time Primetime Emmy Award winner, she has also been nominated for a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a BAFTA Award, and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, among other accolades. And she also starts in rated R puppet movies.

Must Do: The Peach Barn Vineyard and Winery

Built back in 1945, the Peach Barn’s primary purpose was to harvest peaches from the surrounding area. Taken over in the late 90s by Scandinavian couple Anders and Gerd Hedman, the barn was renovated into a winery, Swedish café and a gift shop featuring Swedish items to the natives of Southern Illinois. The barn was renovated by the couple themselves and features classic Swedish design like traditional kurbits painted on the wall.

Their wines consist of a variety of European and Swedish notes while incorporating the flavors of Southernmost Illinois. From their white wines, the standout is their Peach Dessert Wine that is made from local peaches and contains a subtle hint of vanilla, rum, and chocolate. For red wine enthusiasts, the Norton selection, a 2-year aged oak barrel deep red, is worth every penny. And for adventurers, we highly recommend the Swedish Glögg, the warm red wine.

In the café, you can try Swedish delicacies all of which sound appealing and smell amazing. The traditional sample of pickled herring, boiled eggs, creamed caviar, sour cream, meatballs, and lingonberries was beyond words. It was simply divine and had all the tastes of what is expected of Swedish food. For dinner, the wiener schnitzel is also everything you imaged Swedish cuisine to be. Our other guests got Fish Au Gratin which was surprisingly delicious as pairing fish and cheese is usually not done in restaurants.

After being gluttonous head over to the gift shop where you can find handcrafted traditional Swedish gifts such as wooden toys, teapots and vessels, glassware, chocolate and so much more.

For more information about The Peach Barn visit their website: http://www.peachbarn.com/

The World’s Largest Catsup Bottle

Just when you didn’t think Southernmost Illinois couldn’t be any cooler, you were wrong. Located south of downtown Collinsville on Route 159, stands the 170-foot condiment container. It is, in fact, the World’s Largest Catsup Bottle. However, it doesn’t hold catsup or as others call it ketchup. The bottle itself is actually the outside structure of a water tower that was constructed in 1949. It was built by the W.E. Caldwell Company for G.S. Suppiger catsup bottling plant.

Now a popular tourist attraction, the bottle was almost demolished in 1995 but was saved by the locals in the Catsup Bottle Preservation Group. Through their efforts in August 2002, the catsup bottle became listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The bottle is a 170-foot replica of Brook’s Old Original Tangy catsup bottle. Everett and Elgin Brooks bought the canning and packing company in 1907. They eventually sold the plant to American Cone and Pretzel Company but they kept the Brooks brand name. Throughout the depression the company was successful. Throughout the 40s and 50s, Brooks was one of the highest sellers of catsup in America. In fact, you can still buy some of the Brooks ketchup: www.brookscatsup.com

Every year there is a festival celebrating the history of this landmark including a child’s pageant knighting little princess tomato and sir catsup, BBQ, hot dog eating contest, tater tots eating contest, carnival games and an antique car show. There’s a plethora of merchandise available including t-shirts, keychains, shot glasses, catsup bottles koozies, Christmas ornaments, coffee mugs, hats, postcards and magnets.

What Is The Devil’s Backbone?

Located in Grand Tower, Illinois, the Devil’s Backbone is a half mile ride of limestone that runs along the eastern shore of the Mississippi River. At the north edge is another landmark called The Devil’s  Bake Oven containing what is called Tower Rock. It is a 100-foot rock that stands on the end of the Missippi River. This landmark has a rich cultural history and has been a popular tourist attraction to anyone visiting the area.

When French explorers, Louis Jolliet and Jacque Marquette were first exploring the Mississippi River they noted a large rock, that is now known as Tower Rock.This area of the Mississippi was particularly treacherous and many a sailor would die around this ridge. This gave the area a sinister feel causing Native Americans to associate this stretch of the river with evil spirits. When white settlers infiltrated the land, they agreed with the Native Americans naming this area after the devil.

Many pirates would hide out in these parts and wait for victims. In the early 1800s, the amount of crime skyrocketed in this area causing the US Calvrymen to settle in the area to prevent pirates from attacking. However, their efforts were futile because the pirates just moved to a different stretch of the river. As the industrial revolution began to happen in the United States, the site became home to an Iron Factory and many houses for the leaders of the company. Some of the old foundations of the homes can be seen today and are allegedly haunted (or just the same evil spirits the Native Americans saw).

If you plan on visiting Southernmost Illinois and are interested in the supernatural, then The Devil’s Backbone and Bake Oven are a must see.